These Upgrades can be used to increase processing speed of your machines, allow them to have a higher amount of EU/T and allow your machines store more energy.
The Overclocker Upgrade is used to increase the processing speed of machines at the cost of higher energy consumption. Each Overclocker reduces the time needed for one operation to 70% of the original length of time, at the expense of a 60% increase in energy consumption. Note that without a large throughput of power or extra power reserves (via an Energy Storage Upgrade), too many Overclockers can drain the internal storage of the machine, making it effectively unusable.
Energy Storage Upgrade
The Energy Storage Upgrade can be used to upgrade a machine's internal power storage. Each upgrade added increases the storage capacity by 10,032 EU. This can be useful when too many Overclockers are installed: the machine would attempt to draw power from its internal storage, but would not be able to draw enough to power one cycle, rendering the machine unusable.
A Transformer Upgrade can be used to upgrade a machine's input rate or tier. One upgrade enables a tier 1 machine to receive 128 EU/T. Two upgrades to receive 512 EU/T and three for 1024 EU/T.
Important: Make sure to put in the Transformer Upgrade before applying power. Temporarily removing your wire is a good idea.